John Dickson Carr Vs Clayton Rawson
(Cover of the rare Italian Locked Rooms collection, which includes the novel by Fearn)
Published at 1946 with name and surname original, Within That Room!, is still, by someone defined more than a mystery, a horror novel. But, instead, it is a mystery novel with a strong and steady connotation of the gothic genre.
John (Francis) Russell Fearn was born in 1908 in Worsley in Lancashire (UK). He published many novels, especially westerns and science fiction . In this last genre, he excelled, winning the masses of readers, under the pseudonym Vargo Statten. Other pseudonyms, signed novels of a different kind: Thornton Ayre, Polton Cross, Geoffrey Armstrong, John Cotton, Dennis Clive, Ephriam Winiki, Astron Del Martia, etc. ..
Fearn also published 26 novels under various names, of different genres, among them, several contained Locked Rooms.
Fearn died in 1960.
Within That Room! is still essentially a room that kills. It’s the old subject invented by Eden Phillpotts with The Grey Room, and then cooled by other authors, including for example The Door to Doom by John Dickson Carr.
Here is a heroic nurse of Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS), which, immediately after the second world war, rather unexpectedly inherits from a geezer uncle, famous entomologist, a site surrounded by an aura strange and disturbing: Sunny Acres . Vera Grantham, does not believe the old stories of ghost that surround the castle inherited from his uncle Cirrus; yet she is located just before the hostility of the people, when you know she is the new owner of the manor: no one wants to go with her, so young woman ends up accepting the offer of a young man who does not know, an airman in the RAF, veteran as she, Dick Wilmott, who is trying to open a radio repair shop. On the shabby car of him, they reach the castle, inhabited only by two servants, the Failworth , he the butler, she the cook and the housekeeper.
The young woman, newly arrived, hopes to finda peaceful atmosphere,and insteadthetwo servants, begin to press herto sellthe propertyin order-they say-to avoid the problems by the girl’s uncle, CirrusMerriforth, become mad .More, however, thetwo servants, and in particular the housekeeper, trying toterrorize theyounger,getas result herapathy.One evening,the girlsurpriseswithout being seen, the two servantsintentin the basementto pumpamysterious liquidfroma manholein the stone floorof the cellarand to openall sorts ofcontainersat their disposal:the twoare wearinggas masksto protect themselves frompoisonousandstinkingfumes, immediatelyconvincingthe girl whois spying them, toseek somehelp.Sothe next morning she goes toGodalming, aplace nearwhere is theshopof DickWilmottand prays theyoung man, whois secretly in lovewith her, to go with herto the castle,pretending to beengaged.Mrs.Failworthdoes not believeat allthatthe two say, realizingthat the game ofterror andthe saleof the castlecan not result as they had intended: the young does not sell,even better,together with theyoung, she wants tovisit the cursed room, that had led to themadness her uncle, and at which is said tomanifesta ghost,and at June 21, alsoan evil spirit. They madeunrivetthe door, whose jambsare nailedand whosecracksaresealed withadhesive tape, the two entering into:it is acompletely emptyroom, filled to capacitywith dust anddominated by a largefireplace,thebottom of which hascollapsed. Soon, they begin to haveseriousbreathing problems, andalso seea ghostmaterialize, grinning. They have toleave the room,to go backto being able tobreathe andtoreflectwith clear mind.
More and moreconvincedby the attitudeof the servants, that they are involvedin some kind ofplotagainst them, the two young people cometo the law firmthathandled thetransfer of propertyfrom his uncleto his nieceandcome to knowthat such achemicalanalyst, Harry Castairs, offered to detectthe castle andaroundthe property, about fifteen thousand pounds; connectingto the professionof the buyercluesconcerningthe mysteriousliquidpumpedfrom undergroundandsmellystenchthat accompaniesthe extraction,are convincedof the existence ofsomeunderground source, corroboratedby the discoveryin abook from the libraryof the castle,news about thecastle, builton an ancientvolcanic faultapparently.
The twosuspectnow thatthose feelings ofsuffocation andthe stenchof rotten eggs, is due tosulfur dioxideandhydrogen sulfide,twosubstancepresentin volcanic gases, andthe gas ispushed upinto theroom throughthechimney flue: they provethattheunhealthy atmospherein theroomdoes not exist whenthe servantsare engaged inother activities anddo not suspectthat the twoyoung peopleshould enter theroom.Theghost manifestsanyway, andthen,tofindthe explanation,beforethey attribute thecauseto a mysterioussubstanceon theceiling of theroom, thenclinging to ivyclimbing of the tower, Dick is hoistedouttoseefrom the outsidethe window glass, findinga drawn figurecorresponding to thatwhich is manifestedin the damn room.
In the book found in the library of the castle is missing a map of the manor, torn by someone, so the young man goes in search of another copy of the book, which located at an acquaintance of his, not realizing that the cellars are accessed only by the main staircase, but also by a ladder of service.
Again a lot will happen, and continuous revelations will accumulate with each other until the dramatic end, at the torture chamber of the castle.
Novel with a great atmosphere, and with a brisk pace, does not keep its promises to the end, deflating soon, and especially giving the answers too early, so that the expectation of the final revelation is replaced by that concerning the lives of two young men. You will know about the culprits from the beginning and still a few surprise covers only the role of one spouse to the other, and that of the analytical chemist. Moreover, the two young men have not won deservedly the combat with the murderers of his uncle, as they are able to get the better just because one spouse rebels himself to the other while Dick and Vera are helpless, chained and point of being tortured with red-hot embers.
A final liberator, very cinematographic, dominated by the outdated system, but rather elementary and childish ghosts, bad domestic (obviously as in the tradition of the mystery novel super-fashioned), inheritance disputes, treasures, mysterious roots, hell poisons.
Novel does not belong to a distant time, and for this reason excusable, but even to 1946, as if 30s never existed, Fearn realizes a ghost comedy, tucking the reason for the room that kills, but too early revealing the mechanisms deadly , and then removing bite to the story. And setting the novel in the way of the stories of Nancy Drew, in which women are always defenseless beings, engaged couples are knights who rushed to defend the maiden and if there are castles, surely the servants are required to be treacherous.
It ‘s interesting to read only for lovers of Locked Rooms, who want to add another Room to the list of read and understood works.
Pietro De Palma
John Thomas Sladek
When John Sladek wrote Black Aura was 1974: up until then he had written only science fiction novels .The ” conversion” to the Genre Mystery , it had occurred two years before, when The Times had announced a competition for the best unpublished mystery story , “The Times Detective Story Competition” – and bear witness to the high quality of selection conversely would have guaranteed the high quality of work winner , there was also the presence of Agatha Christie among the jurors: He was awarded winner, with a flattering opinion by A.Christie .
The story was called By an Unknown Hand (in Italy it is still unpublished): a locked room of extraordinary level, as the best by Carr or by Rawson. Sladek had a feature (he died 12 years ago of pulmonary fibrosis) , typical of science fiction novelists : his novels had some fantastic plots , verging on the bizarre and on the visionary ( like some by Fredric Brown ).
The plot and the staging of the impossible crime is one of the most exciting in the flow of crime fiction in general, and more specifically of the locked rooms, I ‘ve ever read. Because, even if the substance would be impossible (the subject enters into a hotel room, and then when you enter into, he is strangled to death . And there was only the detective to guard the front door and he swears that no one came out of it. But someone has murdered a man , in a room from which no one left or entered from the outside) , but the solution is reduced to an orange chair and to an old trick as the world . The detective , Thackeray Phin , with the help of readings by Carr and by Chesterton, finds the key to the problem and reveals very ingenious premeditated murder, by virtue of an unprecedented imaginative virtuosity (except Fell, Merrivale , Bencolin , Don Diavolo , Merlini , and a few others ) .
I mentioned the story, because Black Aura, the first between two novels , takes up a lot from the story : the first, Sladek entrusts the investigator part just to Phin , and he prepares an ingenious plot.. Then , he disseminates a series of impossibilities really impossible. In essence, what we can say to introduce the novel is that Sladek was an author so intelligent than a simple and straightforward reading is never enough to understand the mechanisms that conceal the plot : you often resume reading and go to re-read what you just read, to have a mindset and to be able to follow the author and his detective, in the labyrinths of the plot.
Black Aura is so. The birth of a visionary fantasy . But at the same time it is a clear-cut answer to own convictions . Sladek was a positivist and as such, a materialist subject : everything did not fall within the scope of demonstrable , it was discarded. For example the occultism . His intellectual conception , had already been released in his sci-fi works in the form of irreverent and sarcastic judgments .
Phin works within a community of spiritualists , conducted by a medium that prides to get in touch with many otherworldly entities , and so doing seems she ensnared some of her members; and he suspects that in this community there is not just plagiarism or circumvention of the weak and incompetent persons, but also real crimes . Therefore, he who does not believe to mediums and seances, pretends to want join , although some of the followers of this cult know very well he is a detective.
To heterogeneous group , a company of the ethereal Mandala, part several persons: there is a reverend, a psychologist, a retired military officer , a pop singer , and, of course, the medium, and a scientific researcher . Everyone is there for a purpose : there’s who exploits the gullibility of others, who in order to avoid any interference of entities that are not beneficial, who really gets in touch with the ghosts by his dead . It’s the case of Lauderdale , who lost his son Dave . It is said that his ghost has appeared to the pop singer . Dave was a drug addict , who had come into possession of an authentic Egyptian talisman , which is said to bring bad luck, a cursed talisman in the form of a beetle .
He died for a drug overdose: this is the verdict by the police. But some is not convinced . The fact is that Phin begins to investigate . He knows nothing about Dave, but he wants go to the bottom of things and he starts asking questions . At one day , Lauderdale, in front of everyone , including Phin, goes to the bathroom : Steve Sonday , the pop singer and his friend , is out. Some time elapses, but he does not come out . Eventually they decide to go to see if he felt bad, but they found the empty room, without he has been able to get out without the others could not see : vanished into thin air.
Phin is the most worried . And while others persons are scrambling to look in all the corners of the building , he is increasingly concerned , as the time passes and Sonday is not found : did Sonday dead? This fact becomes apparent when they found him in the shed , in a kind of vertical caisson , sitting and strangled .
Is not the only disturbing thing, though. Some time later, just Steve Sonday , the friend of Lauderdale, organizes an experiment in which he can prove to the group, even disbelief , that he can levitate in the air, in front of their eyes , to the height of the balcony. Too bad! He precipitates and he remains stuck in the gate . In short, too many criminal events . To which again it is associated the attempted poisoning of the medium, and the extraordinary disappearance of Reverend: he comes to pray in the mortuary chapel of the funeral company , although there are no other means by which he can come out, if not precisely the coffin, he mysteriously disappears , he vanishes into thin air , only to be found elsewhere, in a state of unconsciousness.
To Phin will be hard to find the key to the problem , and nailing a slippery and unpredictable murderer.
Again Sladek demonstrates a capacity to surprise, playing with the readers: by directing them in one direction and then making fun of them with pure conjuring tricks : for example, the disappearance of the reverend. How did he vanish into the chapel ? The two doors were guarded : the first by two pallbearers , the second by the other persons of the Company spiritualistic: someone obviously is not telling the truth. Or .. is it possible that the coffin might contain two bodies. The reality will be less gruesome than you might think, but the possibility that in the coffin there could be two bodies, it drews The Greek Coffin Mystery by Ellery Queen ( and I’m sure that this remembrance Sladek had in mind when he designed the situation ) .
The levitation that is an optical trick : which writer does it bring to our mind who put a famous optical trick at his very famous novel? J.D.Carr , at The Hollow Man, but also at a short story with Colonel March: The New Invisible Man .
The trick of the bathroom is a variation of a locked room he designed in the case of Invisible Green: in the first novel, Sladek devised a locked Room, making finding the victim locked in the bathroom; here, he invented a disappearance from a closed bathroom.
But the best thing about the novel is the literary quality , the suspended tone between the satirical and the ironic , with some good joke; the rhythm is smooth and the style is flowing , very light. The inventions are wasted , and so the tension remains very high until the end .
But like any good final, at the manner by Fredric Brown, Sladek is astonishing : where Mrs. Webb was defended from the charge of stealing the ring from a dead , citing the fact that a martian entity Martian had given her it , Phin fixes a spaceship : it will not be true that the Martians really exist ? , is as Sladek wants tell us .
Talking between us, if we must say, the two disappearances from the bathroom and from the chapel they are not much, because the astute reader directs his gaze in the right direction: it is the levitation levitation the real trick who leaves us completely astonished .
Then when he will explain the trick, someone will can say, of course, could not be otherwise.
Strange nobody has thought before, though.
Pietro De Palma
Some time ago, I have already examinated John Innes Mackintosh Stewart and discussed about him when I analyzed The Gay Phoenix, 1976.
“Appleby’s Other Story”, John Appleby’s twenty-sixth adventure, was published in 1974.
It begins, without any introduction, right away with the murder.John Appleby former Chief Commissioner now retired, along with his friend Colonel Tommy Pride, Chief of Police County, is on his way to Elvedon Court, an ancient manor house, owned by Maurice Tytherton, businessman and big collector of paintings . The secret intention of Pride, which has happily involved Appleby, happy to wake up from the slumber of retirement, is to get an opinion by his friend regarding a matter which occurred a few years earlier: the disappearance of some valuable paintings from the mansion of Elvedon Court, well paid by the insurance guy. However in Pride something is wrong in the disappearance and so the two are bringing the collector. But they find him already dead and stiff: he was killed in the night with a gunshot wound, in his studio.
Pride, asks Appleby, to deal fairly with the benevolence of the Inspector Henderson, happy to obtaining a prestigious advice as that of the former Commissioner,.
The environment in which the police must move is nebulous, far beyond the most optimistic expectations: the inhabitants of the house, from the familiar to the household, are the most treacherous might exist.
The second wife of Maurice Tytherton, Alice, is beautiful but cold and distant: she is interested in the good name of the property to be well regarded by society, and takes advantage of her husband substances considerably, living comfortably. As you know her relationship with her husband are cold: her husband has a mistress, Cynthia Graves, a girl of dubious morality, a courtesan of luxury, a kept short, that is not ashamed to warm not only the bed of her lover but also the bed of Maurice’s nephew, Archie, other debauched, whose favorite activity is to have sex with whoever chicks in sight, including the maids. Cynthia, after all, has not lost time: she has a extramarital affair with Dr. Carter, an eminent surgeon. So a family where the infidelities are mutual and also well known.
In addition to the immediate family members, other strange characters move in the house: Raphael, strange mediator of works of art, by his criminal record not spotless, involved in the past of Appleby at investigations concerning disappearances of works of art and receiving, who is around the huge and multiple rooms of the villa, apparently invited by the landlord; Miss Kentwell, another strange character, whose occupation seems to be to extort money for charity, and finally the butler, Catmull and his wife, both slimy, very interested in the property of the house, and gossips. Finally, there is also the prodigal son, just got home, Mark, only son of Maurice, who Appleby located in the woods around the house, and that seems to have been at home the night before his father was killed, and that he had with him a furious quarrel, which ended with his escape into the woods. The reason for so much hatred? The jewels of the mother, the first wife of Maurice, valuable jewelry, including a diamond parure, which as own property of his mother and not given her by her husband, they should be own of Mark and instead they are over, despite aspirations to possess them from part of Alice, in the hands of a bitch of Maurice, Cynthia, who on every occasion never loses an opportunity to understand how sex is a job and a chance to succeed.
In addition to these “moral exemplars”, two other characters turn in tourbillon entourage: the vicar Voysey, and secretary of Maurice, Ronnie Ramsden, another character rather ambiguous.
The investigations of Appleby and Harrison have suffered quite complex: Miss Ramsden and Kentwell, the night before, they toured the house, with destination roofs, climbing and descending stairs inside to enjoy the full moon. First they entered at the studio on the first floor, but did not find Maurice Tytherton, then when they went back down, found him dead: curiously, the tray with brandy instead of being on the mantelpiece was in another place as if Maurice had received a visit. In addition, the first time they entered at the study, they felt the scream of a peacock, and looking out saw him stationed on the head of the statue of Hermes, just under the window, and the second time they didn’t heard.
The time is twenty minutes, in which anyone in the house could have shopped the crime without being seen: the two that probably, as mentioned, are excluded before are Ramsden and Kentwell, who as together, to provide everyone another an airtight alibi (always, however, that they have killed him together!). Either you do not understand why Ramsden had to suppress his master, and even more so the Kentwell which is apparently in the house to raise funds for charity: she would have to kill “his goose that lays the golden eggs.” Why?
Appleby begins to investigate. And soon understand that each one of the subjects of this drama has two or three different faces, each lying at the same time presenting the truths that are more comfortable. And he understands among the possible motives of murder (jealousy versus his wife or his nephew, and for this reason he had asked the same afternoon of his death his lawyer, to change the testamentary dispositions, changing beneficiaries (niece, wife, child); possession of his wife’s jewelry (son, wife, lover); stolen paintings (Raphael); icons removed from the USSR and ended up in the hands of Maurice), the driving factor was that of art objects. You find Miss Kentwell be a private detective in disguise, whose double occupancy in that house was to control Alice on behalf of her husband, to demonstrate her betrayal and at the same time to look for the icons stolen. And within a day Appleby comes to solving the case, after having made the rounds of the immense villa and having visited all the rooms and floors and even having been in attics, after finding the torn paper in the local deputy to the trash; after hearing the cry of a peacock, on the night of the murder, after finding the stolen icons, behind the innocent squares.
Highest class novel, Appleby’s Other Story has a tension that does not loose a moment and various are its characteristics.
The first, theabsence ofa prologue, anintroductionto the crime: Innes, despite being a pureBritish, andthen inserted into thevein of theAnglo-Saxon detective story, he actsas J.D.Carr used to do: he entered hischaracterincrime took place, most of the time, alien to thecontext in whichthe crimehas matured, impartial, “superhomines” and then be able to assessthe half-truthsas wellashalf-lies.
The second,the presence ofrhetorical figuresscattered here and there, including some very effectiveallegorical representations: John InnesMackintoshStewartwas aprofessor ofgreatqualities humanities thatyou couldappreciate into thetrendmoreoften expressedin his novels, at theliterary referenceworks ofLatin and Britishauthorsof the past: here, too, sometimes, hisliterary knowledgediffer. At the beginningof the novel,there is a stepin point:“Grove nodsatgrove, eachalleyhasabrother, AndhalftheplatformjustReflectstheother” and the reader notvery curious,couldfalselyattributed toWilliamBlake, whois mentioneda few linesbelow,andabove allthatcouldbe attributed toa displayofpoetic cultureabsolutelyvain. In fact,“Grove nodsatgrove, eachalleyhasabrother, AndhalftheplatformjustReflectstheother” that is a passage from “EpistlestoSeveralPersons: EpistleIV, To RichardBoyle”(Moral Essays,p. IV, l.117)by Alexander Pope, in my opinionbehindtoother reasoning.
As I supposed at the case of The Gay Phoenix, here Michael Innes uses his humanistic knowledge using it in lexical treasures and enigmatic references, which, when placed in the box, they are never separated from the context of the plot, but rather anticipate the nature of revelation and deductions later. Thus, if the title of the novel of 1975 alluded not so much to a quality of the Phoenix as a subtle allusion to the homosexual nature of a character, so also here on several occasions, Innes uses figures of speech to reveal certain characteristics of the plot. The allegory that is inherent in the couplet of Pope, may be reported in addition to the psychological duplicity of the characters, even the double nature of a feature of the plot that will be the basis of the final revelation. I do not think it is my personal guess, so much so that the beginning of the couplet “Grove nods at grove” is repeated later in the rest of the novel.
However Innes fits other figures of speech in the narrative framework of the novel: a similarity between the way you peel the apple by Reverend Voysey and the gracefulness with which he climbs the flight of stairs of Elvedon Court; or an allegory, referring to the dream of Archie (the pool table who becomes larger and so the slats; and the balls at the end they are like cannonballs, and he has to beat continually them here and there, frantically), in which, in my opinion, the dream alludes to a representation of intercourse, even in a figurative rather obscene: the pool table could be the lover or the bed, the slats are often figurative representations of the male member, the balls of the testes. Their frenetic movement figuratively expresses precisely the heat of an embrace, in an extremely plastic.
It also describes beautifully the figure of Archie, tying the understanding of his psychological nature to a representation which is also visual, explanatory in his coarseness and associated with a particular type of person.
Then there’s an epic phrase : “Hold high your swords shining or the dew will rust” . The couplet refers to the famous speech Shakespeare’s Othello does that in English reads: “Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them” (William Shakespeare: Othello, Act 1, Scene II, to 60). In my opinion we have ascertained a parody: in fact, the rolling pin lifted into the air by butler Catmull’s wife and ready to strike, draws his sword raised in the air by Othello. Here the image of the epic Shakespearean speech, takes on a sarcastic more , because to the warrior of the sea is countered a warrior of the kitchen. The dew, as you know is laying on the flowers and grass, on something that is at the bottom. If you do not use often the sword, that will remain inactive, tucked into the sheath, and may run the risk of rust. If you often use it, fighting, it will not rust, because it will always be used, and then clean and sharp. So the rolling pin often used will be clean, more clean than not used often.
Another figure of speech that appears to me is the circumlocution: the phrase under consideration is at page 114 of the cap. 6th into the Italian translation of the novel, in which Appleby says to himself, his wanderings in the attics of Elvedon Court. The phrase in its original version is “The superannuations of sunk realms” (taken from “The Fall of Hyperion - a dream” “by John Keats 1, 66), referring to the meaning of the paraphrase mentioned by Innes, because in this case it refers ideally to a dusty attic in which they are stacked many things now put on board because they are no longer usable or gone out of fashion.
These figures of speech and expressions, that every so often you meet, they all looked very ironic, manifestation classic of British humor, a laughter through clenched teeth, which relieves the tension, softening it with the beat of the educated man.
The result in all its complexity, is a writing not very easy to interpret, valuable in its wordplay, its meanings, often double, difficult and therefore also slow in his gait, similar to slowness gait with which a elderly person, such as Appleby, moves and speaks: in short, a similarity hidden in the very nature of the stylistic way of writing ..
Other hidden meaning seems to me to be the reference scream of the peacock perched on the head of the statue of Hermes. As the same Innes says, citing the nature of the psychopomp by Hermes, the god Hermes was the companion of the spirits of the dead, at the journey to the underworld of the afterlife: therefore, the reference of Hermes and of peacock, would be an sought allusion: the peacock screaming (at night, even the hoopoe who is a symbol of death, screams), perched on the head of a deity, with a value of deities of the afterlife, it would allude to the death of someone, in this case of Maurice. In other words, when the peacock screams perched on the head of the statue of Hermes, Maurice is already dead and Hermes is leading him in the kingdom of the dead.
However, the class of Innes lies in the use of these subtleties of poetic practice, and these learned quotations, not as we said before, only to show off his culture, but above all to emphasize certain characteristics of the novel. This, then, once again, the novel reveals the treasures, not so obvious to the first interpretation.
The novel finally possesses some very significant citations, authors of crime: they are manifest, when he cites The Problem of Thor Bridge by Conan Doyle’s The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes published in 1922, while they are hidden, most likely when he runs in the solution, certainly, to a famous story of Department of Queer Complaints by Carter Dickson (John Dickson Carr), published in 1940.
Pietro De Palma
Some novels I read in a single blow, putting one or two days, and there are others that takes me a bit more time: I read this in a longer time than other equally challenging.
The thing may seem a pseudo-problem, because it related to subjectivity; in reality its importance has it: the length of the reading of this novel, in my opinion is related to the expectation that you can have. If you read it, like any novel, there is already half a disappointment, because the space before the first offense is too long, if you read it as a supernatural thriller it can be very charming; if, finally, you read it, as in my case, because it has been lauded by the great critics of the “Looked Room”, the attitude of reading oscillates between love and hate.
Because, now, after reading it, and re-reading it a second time to be more secure, I didn’t figure it to be called a Locked Room.
Through a Glass, Darkly (1950) was written by Helen McCloy, from a short story she had written two years before,“Through a Glass Darkly”, published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine in September 1948. She is called by many critics the greatest woman writer of detective genre in America: in addition to this novel, that is her most famous, Helen McCloy who was also married to hard-boiled writer Brett Halliday, creator of private detective Mike Shayne, wrote other novels always with his main character, the psychiatrist Basil Willing, including his other masterpiece novel Mr. Splitfoot (1968).
In several novels, McCloy addresses the issue of the crime impossible, for example in Mr. Splitfoot: Mr. Splitfoot is another name for Satan define (the charade is explanatory). It seems curious note that a character at Through a Glass, Darkly , the object of our analysis, the Director of the School Brereton, is called Mrs. “Lightfoot”, as the later “Splitfoot” used elsewhere: the common denominator may be the supernatural call, which can be attributed to the characters in question. In fact, Mrs. Lightfoot is one of the people who claims as Miss Faustina Crayle, the hapless protagonist of the novel, was persecuted by his double if not the evoked with his feelings.
This Faustina is a teacher very unfortunate, because where she is teaching, tends to obscure events occur, i.e. her inexplicable dislocations in different places, in front of witnesses, who swear that while Faustina was engaged to paint, her dual sat elsewhere before their sight aghast. In fact, the origin of the double, the “Doppelganger”, can be attributed to the belief that they experience near death of a person, and that was a manifestation of supernatural origin.
This kind of ghost, which creates an aura of mystery, terror, suspicion, and slander about Faustina, real or perceived, means that she has to change seat of learning frequently. Until something happens that is not properly connected to the supernatural: Alice Aitchinson dies, a student who hated Faustina. She dies, breaking his neck, falling down a stairway.
Someone swears he saw Faustina just before the Aitchinson fall, but this is not possible, because in the meantime Faustina is miles away. It’s this a Locked Room? It is because the murderess some persons say they looked her from a distance, she would seem to be evaporated? I do not know. It is certain that this does not seem a “Locked Room” in the strict sense, as there are the qualities that make it impossible to crime, except that the murderess seems to have split in two different places. But what we will see, invests more the sphere of the supernatural or would-be than anything else.
Accidental death? Suicide or something? It ‘obvious that slander now reach the summit, so much so that Basil Willing, the boyfriend of Gisela von Hohenems, a colleague of Faustina, encouraged as a psychiatrist to deal with such events para-psychic, feels the need to defend Faustina. Until that even Faustina died in a way that frees the murderess, if he was stopped, from any possible accusation against him: Faustina injured, nothing that can connect to an assault or act of violence.
She died for a heart attack, and it is Gisela find her, on a dark night in the cottage where Faustina was going to stay. A cottage that belonged to the mother of Faustina, Pink Diamond, a famous maintained high board, and before that it had belonged to one of his lovers.
The testament of Rose, entrusted to his legatee, says if Faustina were to die, the jewelry that her mother has given to daughter would be returned to their rightful owners (heirs of those who had donated to her at the time) even if there were , otherwise would be added to the rest. In short, a good motive to kill her. Why, if she died for a heart attack?
Here, too, I do not really think that there’s a Locked Room: Faustina opens the door and sees that the lighting does not work out so he needs to look for a light switch: she leaves her luggage at the door, which remains open and she enters. The taxi driver who took her home, says that in practice he did not see anyone leave, since the house was in his view until he put back into the path of the forest from which he came, but in the opposite direction. However, the murderess could have been dressed in black, and take advantage of the dark to avoid being seen. Not only. Gisela takes time to get to the cottage, time that could be used in case the killer was there, simply disappearing. But beyond that, Gisela, who is going to Faustina, invests almost a figure in the woods, revealing for a moment, in front of his eyes terrified, Faustina: how could she be there at that time, if the coroner says she was already dead in the house?
Basil Willing demonstrate that the Doppelganger was not really but…of a different nature. If it there wasn’t a Locked Room, however, it should be a novel about the supernatural. And the method used by the killer to kill, to induce the player to have a heart attack, is the fear: fear of something ancestral, fear of his double, fear of death.
The death, “Der Tod” in German, introduced by male article because he was represented by a knight with scythe, on a black horse, appears in many poems, when the man is about to pass away. The fear of Faustina to see herself, her Doppelganger, could be related to the fear of being about to die, what then happens. Moreover, the Doppelganger is attested in many literary texts and in the tradition of Central European countries, as a figure appeared, which could be seen only on the bias, with one eye, only near death.
Now the title of the novel, can have a triple meaning: it may allude to the verse of St. Paul, 1 Corinthians 13:12: “.. βλεπομεν γαρ αρτι δι εσοπτρου εν αινιγματι “, “For now we see through a glass, darkly”; it could allude, in my opinion, the way to commit the second murder: “.. as in a mirror, in the dark.” The protagonist was led to see herself, since the murderer has built, based on the absence of light, a mirror, transforming a large glass door, with doors opening at the center of the room, in a craft but tremendously effective mirror.
And it could finally reconnect the eponymous anthology of short stories of the great novelist and Irish writer Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: In a Glass Darkly, in which Dr. Martin Hesselius investigates cases the limit of the paranormal and can be found in references to the theme of Doppelganger : for example in The Familiar, version of the story appeared in The Watcher in the previous collection Ghost Stories and Tales of Mystery (1851), and in Mr Justice Harbottle. Dr. Hesselius, this singular figure of detective before his time, paid to the paranormal, will also make Dr. Fell by John Dickson Carr, if not Colonel March always by Carr.
Through a Glass, Darkly, rather than being another, is a novel that mixes very cleverly and intelligently elements of thriller and the supernatural. It ‘s very close to or even tributary of The Burning Court by John Dickson Carr which is today still the best example of the mixture of supernatural and crime stories, so as to be taken as an object as an example of fantastic literature (besides Helen McCloy dedicated to Carr and his wife Clarice, her novel Alias Basil Willing).
In this, the novel McCloy, is really built in a wonderful way, and that is tributary to the Carr’s novel, it shows the ending very cleverly alludes to Carr with his double hypothesis: the rational, built by Willing at the expense of killer; the irrational at which the killer, as long as he is the killer of course, will never be accused by any court for the murder happened while he was away: he is accused by Willing only on the basis of a series of clues, very skillfully stuck. However, they are clues, no courts : on these an English-speaking country could put on trial him.
He knows it and Willing knows it, although Basil Willing would expect at least on that occasion, an admission that at least, if it had not the merit of bringing to life Faustina, may clear the field of any supernatural dispute
Only that the accused, not only continues to profess himself innocent, but also he reinforces the supernatural thesis, so it remains the Hamlet-like doubt.
I emphasize “Hamlet doubt”, because I think the end, the last line of this intense dialogue, which concludes the novel, the last page, when the murderer looking at the sky and smiling to himself, says to Willing “only God knows what happens up there”, Helen McCloy links to Shakespeare:
“There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.”
Pietro De Palma
Today we speak about an unknown novel, published in 1954 by Gherardo Casini Editore in the great series of detective novels, “I Gialli del Secolo (=The Century “Yellow” Crime Novels Fiction)” that it should be said right away, go down in history for being abridged: it is novels in the file of just over 90 pages, two-column layout, as the old “Yellow” Novels Mondadori until the 80s, smaller font, showing authors and novels often forgotten now entered only in the memory of those who, like myself , is interested to know also and above all the unknown authors, even at the cost of reading other novels thrown.
At the Casini Publications, the covers are never original, but they are frames taken from famous movies of the time that the situation can recall the title of the novel: in our case, for example, ‘cover image is taken from “Red Snow”. The actor holding the phone is the great Robert Ryan, an unforgettable protagonist of the film mentioned above, one of the best noir of the ’50s, On Dangerous Ground (1951), by Nicholas Ray.
In these novels often descriptions of the atmosphere has been sacrificed in favor of the police bare fact: it can be an advantage or a disadvantage. Nevertheless they are the only chance we have to acquire information about forgotten authors.
The novel in question is by Alexis Gensoul, French writer active after World War II and remembered even today in some circles for a wonderful Locked Room written in collaboration with Charles Grenier, La Mort vient de nulle part (1945) and for another written by him alone in the same year, 1945, L’Énigme de Téfaha.
It must have been a very fruitful 1945, end of the Second World War, in the production of Gesoul, because of the same year is also Gribouille est mort, translated by Casini with “Un morto al telefono (=A dead man on the phone)”
Alexis Gensoul whose biographical information absent, we only know he was a physician and that between 1945 and 1946 he published four novels from the same publisher STAEL, three in 1945 and one in 1946: the first of these was L’Énigme de Téfaha, which has a fairly simple Locked Room, the second work was written with Grenier that still stands as one of Locked Rooms signposting written after the war, the eastern third was Gribouille est Mort, a great novel with a crime impossible, the fourth novel more on the adventure, L’Affaire de la maison Faroux (1946).
Gribouille est Mort would be a Locked Room if it had not the window opened, but all other conditions are impossible in the case of the crime: sealed door, missing weapon, and above all, since that distinguishes this novel, the dead, Gréje, which prophesies the first his own death, writing the letter to an acquaintance of his, Godinet, and call and talk to a policeman friend of his, Corbellet, somewhat naive cop, when he was already dead, the house littered with false evidence and strange clues, and jokes, also. Additionally, there is such Ternaud, with yellow boots that everyone is looking because he was seen at the crime scene, outside the house, and then he ran away; out of the fencing off of the house there ‘s whole class of school that draws, and the instructor, Tresquat, is none other than the illegitimate son of the victim and sole heir to a fortune of two hundred thousand francs at the time: he obviously suspected, even if no one saw him jump over the fence, because at some point has moved away from his students with the excuse to go look for mushrooms in the forest; a mysterious person phoned the local police station from the house of Greje to denounce the murder, but not the murderess, and there is a nearby curious Gourgeot; then there is a weapon found by a policeman amateur Vérannes, before Corbellet, a gun for women, size small, still stuck with a piece of rope, and many characters that are the corollary: Police Commissioner Estreval unlucky in his moves, and which moreover has the his few successes to the collaboration of an underground Sherlock Holmes in the shadows, who signs his suggestions and his letters with a nickname alluding to Perspicax; and the judge Blacy who believes smart himself.
All Ternaud chase, then tried to charge Tresquat, then they find Ternaud and they should wish he proclaimed himself guilty for taking them off the embarrassment of an investigation that does not go forward, especially since the open window, the only possible escape of the murderer ,overlooks a small garden in front of which there’s the famous fence beyond which there are many small children playing draw, all witnesses of the fact that no one may have missed it. Yet the murderer has jumped from the window: There are his footprints in the ground. At some point there is a revelation: an acquaintance of the victim Godinet that will reveal something to the police, but as the best dramas, the precious witness is found at the bottom of a ravine in the burning car.
At this point we need to find the culprit and then a lot of reconstructions face again: Estreval tends to blame Ternaud, Vérannes frames no the murder but a spectacular suicide with a lot of crow flapping at the crime scene and crucial because you do not find a certain thing; and then at the end, Perspicax reveals how Ternaud was not murderer but blackmail, in his turn of the real murderer who is the least to be suspected.
Great test of skill of Alexis Gensoul in having created a novel that approaches the impossible and never cross it, vividly illustrating the French province and subtle psychology of the characters.
However, in this novel, I emphasize the dependence about the British detective novel: the Perspicax solution is identical to that of Evil Under the Sun, by Agatha Christie, novel written in 1941, in particular where the victim has made an agreement with his unknown associate with whom they want to play a joke to others, in pretending to be dead, only that the murderer is not expected by the victim and he murder the victim.
The final solution, fine, is opposed to the other two solutions (not less effective, particularly that of Vérannes): the killer, when killed Gréje, was motivated by revenge and Perspicax says in practice he should waive the right to designate him as the real murderer (felt against him “an instinctive sympathy and inexplicable”) if that had not spotted the second death, that of Godinet, so could not be acquitted. A choice that makes Perspicax more than one investigator, a real sort of executioner in the shadows, very close to Arsene Lupin by Maurice Leblanc.
Pietro De Palma
For the benefit of fans of the detective novel, not Italian, I will say that “The Yellow”, in Italy, is the detective story for excellence. The term “Yellow” in the sense derives from the yellow cover of the first novels published in Italy, “The Yellow Book”, by Mondadori, in 1929. Since then, because those Mondadori novels had an overwhelming success, the term “The Yellow Book” became “The Yellow”. For derivation, many publishing houses arose like mushrooms on the success of Mondadori, calling their books “Yellow”, to engage the phenomenon Mondadori.
The novel by Steeman tells about automata. Why Steeman did think about this plot for a crime you didn’t know. But it is not so odd to remember that at that time abounded literary stimuli and films, concerning the animation of inanimate subjects, complex surgery, people who perhaps had more to do with the horror with yellow. But so much so that Steeman wanted to give his personal contribution: and what contribution!
So to animated automaton by Fritz Lang’s Metropolis due to an exchange of vital energy and transfer of the soul; to the Golem, inanimate mud, which comes to life because of a sign that is placed on his forehead; to intervention on Siamese Twins that Ellery Queen ago groped to Dr. Xavier; to the creature that has life force again by Dr. Frankenstein, who in 1931 returned to be popular by virtue of a successful film adaptation, directed by James Whale, with Boris Karloff, still considered one of the most important films of the genre, it also added the contribution by Steeman.
Stanislas Ansré Steeman, when he wrote in 1934, L’ Ennemi sans visage (alsore-published as M. Wens et L’automate, in 1943), however, was already a name in the panorama of Polar.
Born in Liège in 1908, Belgian as Simenon, before turning to crime fiction, was essentially dedicated to comics, and as a journalist from 1928 to 1933 for La Nation Belge. It was his journalistic activity to promote his inclination definitive writer of detective novels: in fact, along with another journalist under the same head he worked for, Herman Santini (aka Sintair), he wrote his first five novels, then publish novels each their own. However, even he collaborated with his friend, in 1930 he began writing alone, publishing three novels: Peril, Le doigt volé, and reaching fame with Six hommes morts, who had won the “Grand Prix du Roman d’Aventures” , in 1931. In the novel, the character was introduced thicker, Vorobeitchik Wenceslas as Monsieur Wens.
Steeman was known for his loyalty to the styles and rules of the police. In fact most of his first production adheres faithfully to the canons of the orthodox crime literature. But his genius could not be stifled. And so the novels are each marked differently: there is a thriller, parody, the psychological novel, the mystery. The story, to see well, is not interesting, if you see it under the eye of originality. The work by Steeman is more properly an experimentation, a fusion of genres: fantasy and crime fiction .
This can be seen as the very first attempt, even if not perfectly successful: instead we succeed with results imaginative Carr with The Bourning Court. But Carr is Carr, and Steeman is Steeman. Without detracting from the Belgian oestrus.
In appreciation of the past, Steeman intersects his action with that by Mary Shelley, with that by Gaston Leroux, and also with Fritz Lang
Jund is a man who expects nothing from life. He was sentenced to death and he waits for the dawn fatal, in a state of sheer terror.
The beginning of the novel gives us a picture of this man, this criminal, who is afraid that someone will look out the door of his cell because this could mean his death.
“La porte de la cellule s’ouvrit en grinéant et un trait de lumiére courut obliquement sur le sol jusqu’au mur du fond.
Le condamné à mort, émergeant du sommeil, poussa un sourd gémissement.
- Jund! redit Clark, le gardien-chef de l’aile ouest, se penchant et le secouant par l’épaule.
A l’instant l’homme, comme touché par une décharge électrique, se réfugia dans l’angle de la muraille, les traits convulsés par la terreur.
- Qu’est-ce que … ? Quel jour sommes-nous ? questionna-t-il d’une voix rauque.
Jeudi ! répéta le condamné”.
In a few lines, Steeman outlines the figure of a man sentenced to death, which is not to die: I emphasize the strength of the phrase with the analogy that contains. It well represents the incisiveness of psychological by Steeman: “A l’instant l’homme, comme touché par une décharge électrique, se réfugia dans l’angle de la muraille, les traits convulsés par la terreur” (translation: “At the moment the man as affected by electric shock, he tooks refuge in the corner of the wall, the features convulsed by terror”).
I thought a thing while I was posting this article : Headed for a Hearse (1935) by Jonathan Latimer, begins with a man locked in a cell on death row. And Latimer’s novel was published a year later to Steeman. May have used the opening scene of the novel by Steeman reprocessing it for his part, Jonathan Latimer skillful re-user to the things of others? Tuesday is the day of the execution, but also the day of salvation for Clarence Jund. But at what price? To save his life, Jund must agree to undergo an experiment: his vital energy, his mind, his brain will be replanted in an automaton. An automaton, not a collage of pieces of bodies such as Shelley’s Frankenstein, but even here the electricity plays a fundamental role, and Fritz Lang, peeps, in an authoritarian manner. The transfer of life energy, soul, does not take place in Metropolis, his film of 1921? In some ways we Metropolis seems much closer to the novel by Steeman, that‘s Frankenstein by Whaley of 1931!
The fact is that the player for the first time perhaps in the literature of the genre, feels pity for a criminal like Jund, condemned to a cruel death: to live as a larva can do that, deprived of his vital energy, his passions and fears, of his mind.
Before he dies, however, another reference to the past will dawn: Jund tried to escape, a desperate escape, because his supervisor is Ramshaw, who arrested him and to which was ordered to kill him if he tried to escape. And while they fight, break into a dark room. When the room lit, it reveals full of robots, including the famous Chess-Player, which also talks about Edgar Allan Poe, the automaton Maelzel.
Who are the main characters by this drama? Professor Arthus (a scientist a little crazy), his two sons (Max and Tiburzio), Michele Patiny visitor to the residence of Arthus, Clarence Jund (the prisoner) Ramshaw (the cop), Monsieur Wens (private investigator ). Why .. drama? Because soon, events start to dye red.
The night Arthus must perform the experiment of transfer of the brain, in his laboratory : you can hear noises of struggle, broken furniture and then a gunshot. The door is locked from the inside. When you break down the door, you found dead the professor, murdered with a gun, and only two bodies on the two operating tables: Jund and automaton, ready for the operation. In fact, to tell the truth, the operation must be started already when the murderer killed the scientist, since he has begun to affect the skin of the skull of Jund (who is asleep) and try a bowl full of blood. So none of the two (the inanimate automaton and Jund) may have taken part in the murder. Still .. can not find anyone in the lab. In fact, when they return to the lab, the automaton has gone. On the other hand, by the time he shows up several times in various places of the house, in spite of stalking. Does he use inputs secrets?
Here is another presence of the illuminated literature at french novel by Steeman: Gaston Leroux. Not one of his novels with Rouletabille, but the universally known, Le Fantôme de l’Opéra. Who has read it, he knows as the Phantom will be able to appear and disappear within the Paris Opera House. Well, the black man by Steeman, appears and disappears in the same way, and as the Phantom, he is masked.
I will not say more. Who had the good fortune to read this Steeman vintage, so could groped to enjoy them.
However, I want to make a consideration on the Locked Room, considered by Roland Lacourbe as one of the top 99 locked rooms in all: in my opinion, Steeman tried a fusion of two of the three temporal ways of implementing a Locked Room, then expressed by Carr: “before”, “during” and “after”. In practice, he tried the fusion between “before” and “during”. Into which manner? That is the point.
If the death of the professor had been implemented prior to the noise coming from inside the room, you would have to force to find something that had produced those ruins. But do not find anything, or anyone, outside of two bodies: one waiting to be animated and equipped with a human brain, and the other waiting to provide the brain, but completely under narcosis and in such a state ( also determined by Wens) of prostration, as to be close to death, which would have been impossible to kill the professor. And if the death of the professor had been implemented after the noise, one should consider the possibility that the same teacher had committed suicide. But why he would do all that mess inside his lab? Just as he was about to complete his business?
No. The professor was killed. But by whom? The automaton, a being hidden?
The solution is as simple at the same time mesmerizing.
In my opinion, Edward D. Hoch could have read the novel Steeman, before writing his The Frankenstein Factory (1975). I wrote on Mondadori blog:
“.. Even Hoch have known Steeman: here the creature has a perfect body, even out here, here is attributed to the atmosphere of blood, even here at the end will be unrelated to crime.”
I now add one more thing that I had not thought of, and that is substantial: in both cases, the automaton would have to have the mind of a criminal. But that has nothing to do.
Clarence Jund will not live as larvae for the rest of his days, but will return to prison in Louisville, and here will be led to the electric chair. But he will die?
Steeman stores for us in the last lines, a promise of salvation, by the only person who Jund would never have thought he was her savior. As if to say that “hope is the last to die.”